High cholesterol can contribute to plaque buildup in your arteries, which leads to a wide range of problems. This is because high cholesterol can increase the risk of chest pain, coronary heart disease, and heart attacks. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made by the liver and also found in some foods that plays an important role in many different bodily functions. The body needs it to build cells, and it is a major component of bile, which aids digestion. The presence of cholesterol in the body or in the blood is not intrinsically bad. But problems can arise if the blood levels are too high.
There are two main types of cholesterol that circulate in the blood: high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). HDL, also called “good” cholesterol, helps protect against the damaging effects of LDL, or “bad” cholesterol. If your LDL level is too high or your HDL level is too low, cholesterol can combine with other substances to form a hard deposit inside your arteries called plaque. The formation of plaques in your blood vessels, atherosclerosis, increases your risk of developing several health problems.
When LDL cholesterol is high, it can be very dangerous. Traditionally, it causes heart attacks, strokes, and clogged arteries.
But your total cholesterol level, which includes HDL, LDL, and a percentage of your triglyceride level, is also important because it generally tracks LDL cholesterol closely.
If your cholesterol level is too high, it is important to take steps to lower it to prevent health problems in the future or to stop or potentially reverse problems you have already developed.
The most important steps you can take to lower your cholesterol levels and your risk of health complications are not smoking, getting enough exercise, eating a heart-healthy diet, and losing weight if necessary.
The most common health complications that can develop due to high cholesterol
1. High blood pressure
If the arteries in your body narrow due to plaque deposits, your blood pressure can only rise. This is because your blood vessels can no longer relax as efficiently to allow your blood to flow at a healthy level of pressure. High cholesterol and high blood pressure are both silent killers, in that they have no direct symptoms unless the levels are extremely high. But they can both damage your blood vessels over time, increasing your risk of other health problems.
2. Coronary artery disease
Coronary artery disease develops when plaque deposits form in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. At first, this narrowing may not cause any overt symptoms or problems. If a person has coronary artery disease but has not had a heart attack and the disease was treated with a stent or medication, the heart muscle may be normal.
But if plaque in the coronary arteries reduces blood flow to the heart enough, it can lead to heart failure, which is the inability of the heart to pump enough blood throughout the body. And if a blood clot forms in the coronary arteries, it can lead to a heart attack.
3. Chest pain (angina pectoris)
Chest pain is a common symptom of reduced blood flow to the heart due to plaque buildup in the coronary arteries. If you see a doctor for chest pain, one of the first things he’ll think of is coronary artery disease. When an obstruction severely reduces blood flow to the heart, the heart muscle does not get the oxygen it needs, a condition known as ischemia. This ischemia can then activate pain receptors.
4. Heart Attack
A heart attack usually occurs when a piece of plaque breaks off in a coronary artery. In response, your body attempts to repair the rupture by forming a clot, which completely blocks the already narrowed artery and stops blood flow to your heart. High cholesterol isn’t just a factor in the initial formation of plaque in your coronary arteries. Once plaque has formed, high cholesterol can also cause plaque to become more unstable, increasing your risk of a heart attack.
A stroke is similar to a heart attack in that it can involve the rupture of arterial plaque and the formation of a clot. But in this case, it’s happening in an artery that leads to the brain. A stroke occurs when a clot breaks off and travels deeper into the blood vessels of your brain, cutting off blood to part of the organ. As with a heart attack, the longer the area is deprived of oxygen, the more permanent the damage.
6. Peripheral arterial disease
When high cholesterol levels cause plaque buildup in blood vessels, the heart and brain aren’t the only areas where problems can arise. You may also notice decreased blood flow to your leg muscles. If a person has a clogged artery in their leg that is blocking blood flow to the muscle, they will complain of pain. When she starts walking, she feels pain in her leg, and when she stops walking, this pain goes away. Pain in peripheral arterial disease is due to reduced oxygen to the muscles of the leg, much like chest pain in coronary artery disease occurs because the heart does not get enough oxygen.
7. Chronic Kidney Disease
Most people don’t think of their kidneys as organs that can be damaged by high cholesterol, but narrowing of the arteries leading to the kidneys is a common problem. If a large enough obstruction forms, the kidneys will be deprived of oxygen over time, leading to permanent damage. One of the possible signs of clogged renal arteries is high blood pressure that does not respond to drug treatment. Indeed, the kidneys play a key role in the regulation of blood pressure by filtering the liquids present in our body, including blood.
How to prevent complications
To treat or prevent any complications related to high cholesterol, the first thing patients need to do is identify aspects of their lifestyle that can be improved. First, be sure to reduce saturated and trans fats in your diet, focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins, exercise at a moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes per week and lose excess weight.
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